Calvary, also known as Golgotha, was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem’s walls where Jesus was crucified. The word comes from the Greek transcription in the New Testament of an Aramaic term that’s traditionally been presumed to be Gûlgaltâ. The Bible translates the term to mean “Place of [the] skull,” which in Greek is pronounced KraníouTópos, and in Latin is pronounced Calvariæ Locus, from which the English word Calvary is derived.
Golgotha is referred to in early writings as a hill, resembling a skullcap located very near to a gate into Jerusalem. Since the 6th century, it has been referred to as the location of a mountain and as a small hill since 333 A.D. The Gospels describe it as a place near enough to the city that those coming in and out could read the inscription “Jesus of Nazareth - King of the Jews.”